Headroom, Banding and General F-Stops: DP Haris Zambarloukos on Shooting Kenneth Branagh’s <em>Belfast</em> | Filmmaker Magazine (2022)

Headroom, Banding and General F-Stops: DP Haris Zambarloukos on Shooting Kenneth Branagh’s <em>Belfast</em> | Filmmaker Magazine (1)Jude Hill on the set of Belfast(Photo by Rob Youngson/ courtesy of Focus Features)

by Matt Mulcahey
in Cinematographers, Columns, Interviews
on Nov 23, 2021

ALEXA LF, Belfast, Conrad Hall, Haris Zambarloukos, Kenneth Branagh

Adorned with a wooden sword and a garbage can lid shield, nine-year-old Buddy (Jude Hill) begins Belfast fighting imaginary dragons, cloaked in the bliss of summer. That idyllic youthful revelry is ruptured by an explosion. That blast—and what follows—are based on the childhood remembrances of writer-director Kenneth Branagh, whose family was forced to grapple with the prospect of leaving its tightly-knit neighborhood after sectarian violence erupted in Northern Ireland in the summer of 1969. It’s a dilemma cinematographer Haris Zambarloukos understood well. Born on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, Zambarloukos and his family departed following a 1972 military coup and subsequent invasion by the Turkish army.

“I had a similar history as Ken to some extent,” said Zambarloukos. “My father was an engineer and worked in construction and after the invasion he moved us to Dubai for work.”

Zambarloukos and Branagh also share a long professional history. Beginning with 2007’s Sleuth, they’ve made eight films together, ranging from Thor to a pair of Agatha Christie whodunits. All those previous projects were shot on film and with a 2.39 aspect ratio. With Belfast, the collaborators went digital, switched to 1.85 and lensed in black-and-white. Zambarloukos spoke to Filmmaker about that creative shift, why a medium format sensor feels just right to him and the lasting lessons from an internship with legendary cinematographer Conrad Hall.

Filmmaker: In Belfast, movies—both in the cinema and on television—shape how Buddy views the events around him. When you were that age, what films had an impact on you?

Zambarloukos: When we arrived in Dubai in 1974, there really was no television. I think they only showed the Quran five times a day for prayer. So, my parents bought a Super 8 projector. There was a little shop that sold condensed films, which were 20 minute versions of movies. I grew up with silent films like Chaplin and things like Herbie movies or The King and I—but 20 minute versions. Television began to appear in Dubai probably around 1976/1977, and by that time I was basically into Sylvester Stallone and Rocky. (laughs) But for me it really started with that Super 8 projector. I still have it, and the reels, to this day.

Filmmaker: Buddy watches American westerns—High Noon and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance—and Star Trek on television. Did those sorts of things play on TV where you grew up?

Zambarloukos: When we got back to Cyprus I was 11 and I remember Saturday TV was really important to me. It was The Pink Panther, Mork & Mindy and Happy Days. I loved the David Attenborough nature programs as well. We’d also get some free television in Cyprus from places like Czechoslovakia and these really interesting animations would pop up. It was easier to see films in the cinema in Cyprus than in Dubai, so moviegoing in a cinema didn’t really start for me until about age 11 and then it was things like Back to the Future.

Filmmaker: I was reading an interview you did with Panavision around the time Thor came out and there’s a great story about when you were working at Panavision Shepperton after finishing film school. You would help with camera preps and delivering gear to the stages. One of the sets you delivered to was Branagh’s Frankenstein adaptation in the 1990s.

Zambarloukos: I was very fortunate to be a technical trainee at Panavision at that time. They were very gracious with it, because I could go off and shoot projects, then come back and work. I really learned a lot about gear. But the best thing about it was certainly delivering equipment [to the stages]. Usually around 10 o’clock I’d check to see if there was a delivery and that was when the other technicians were taking a morning break, so I’d get half an hour to watch [whatever film was being shot on that stage]. The most impressive set I remember was on H Stage [for Frankenstein]. There was a tank with a ship in it and all these water and storm effects. I was used to having, like, a chair and a table. That was about as big as my sets were at the time. To walk onto something so huge was really incredible for someone so young.

Filmmaker: You also studied at the American Film Institute and interned for Conrad Hall on A Civil Action (1998). Are there things you learned from that shoot—either in terms of technique or just how to treat people and run a crew—that still inform the way you work?

Zambarloukos: Completely. Connie was a true poet and artist, and he had a really chivalrous, gentle way about him. He approached things completely and utterly from a story point of view and certainly made me aware that you have to look out for the little details. For example, on that movie he lit glasses of water or a water tank that was in the room in a certain way so that you’d always remember that the movie was about the differences between clean and dirty water. There were always these tiny visual clues he would dot around his frames.

One day we were shooting John Travolta’s office and it had all these windows to the side of him. I was always trying to figure out, “What would I do in this situation?” and, of course, I got everything wrong when I saw what Connie did. I assumed at that time that you would light that with window light—“Oh, you could really do kind of a Vermeer thing here with soft light”—but Connie didn’t do that. He kept it quite muted from the windows, then started underlighting from the front as if it was light bouncing off the table. I was like, “That’s unusual.” About a week later we did the reverse where everyone is walking into the office to talk to Travolta. It’s a scene where his partners in the law firm are telling him they’ve run dry. Connie knew that for the reverse he was going to backlight that shot and have a really strong sunlight coming from behind [the law firm partners] that was almost blinding. So he had thought ahead about that reverse shot. He didn’t have notes about it or talk about it, but he had a plan. It really taught me to think ahead in terms of narrative and story and to consider the picture as a whole rather than just going for individual shots.

Filmmaker: I rewatched Electra Glide in Blue earlier this year and I just love that film. Do you have a deep-cut Conrad Hall recommendation for people to check out?

Zambarloukos: Not that it’s unknown, but I would say Fat City is a truly beautiful film. It was around the same time as [Gordon Willis’s work on] Klute and they’re very good films to see side-by-side. Fat City has these day-time drinking scenes and the minute someone walks into a dark bar and the door opens, it’s so bright that the light just takes over the place. I don’t know if other people were doing things like that at the time.

Filmmaker: You’re probably going to get asked in every interview about shooting digital with Branagh, so let’s skip to the next step. Once you decided on digital, how did you choose the Alexa LF? Did you test to see how different sensors rendered the black and white?

Zambarloukos: I didn’t need to test too much because I have been using a lot of those cameras on other projects. I certainly could’ve used a RED camera or a Sony camera and we would’ve gotten good results. It’s just personal taste. When the Alexa LF first came out I was really curious to try it, in particular the Mini. I’ve often felt that the 35mm-sized [digital] sensor seemed a little soft. I always preferred the RED cameras in terms of sharpness. The medium format sensor [of the Alexa LF] seemed to get rid of that [softness] problem. That size seems to be where the Red, the Panavision DXL2 and the Sony VENICE have all arrived at and to me that medium format sensor feels just right. So, the LF gave me that medium format size, but with a color space that was familiar to me. I’ve always loved the color of the Alexa. The color palette, in particular in the facial tones, is very pleasing to me.

I was curious to see how that sensor size would pair up with the large format lenses we had used on Murder on the Orient Express and Death on the Nile. So, I took the Panavision System 65 lenses and some of the Sphero lenses—particular ones, with serial numbers and focal lengths that I had used before. I wanted to see how they would fare with a 1.85 ratio and they fared really well. The LF and those lenses seemed to complement each other. It was flattering and clean and crisp, but didn’t seem to have excessive character that would take over the image.

Filmmaker: Did Panavision do any detuning of the lenses?

Zambarloukos: We did tweak them a little and it’s to do with what’s called banding. With the Spheros and the System 65s you can’t have the entire frame in focus. There’s a fall-off and you can either move that fall-off up [higher on the lens] or you can move it down and it really depends on your framing. With Death on the Nile, it was in a 2.40 ratio and the eyelines were quite high in the frame. We cropped around the [top of heads] so I had to move that banding up a little just to make sure the eyes were always in the sharp side. For Belfast, it was a 1.85 ratio and I [framed with more headroom], so the banding we had on Nile didn’t work, so we adjusted and moved it down. The other thing that I almost always ask for is [closer] minimum focus, even if it means the lens is slower. A lot of these lenses work at a minimum focus of about 3 or 3 ½ feet. I’d rather have it at 2 or 2 ½ feet, but to adjust that you lose maybe 2/3 of a stop to a full stop, which I don’t mind. I’d rather have close focus.

Filmmaker: Belfast has quite a few Gregg Toland-esque deep focus shots. How did you achieve that look?

Zambarloukos: It was quite simple, in all honesty. I like to test, then pick an f-stop and that’s my general f-stop for the film. As an audience member, I get a little put off when I watch a film and one shot is at an 8 and then the next shot is at a 2.8. In testing, we tried some really extreme things with Ken. We always experiment. We never just arrive and say, “We know how to make the film.” Even after eight films together there’s a process of discovery. We’ll do one test to say, “Is this the look?” and then another test to say, “But what if?” And the “What if” is always really interesting. So we tested a really, really shallow depth of field as well. It was really interesting for a second, but, particularly with long takes, became really tiresome. It almost begged for attention rather than letting you be a witness. So, we settled at a stop of about 4 to 5.6. We felt that we could achieve most of what we wanted [in terms of deep focus] at that stop with wider lenses, then we put in a hyperfocal length. Once we found that method, for certain scenes we could just lock the tilt and the pan and find a frame, which was liberating

Filmmaker: The movie has these great long takes like you just described—static wide shots with deep focus where you get to sit unobtrusively with the performance. But then there are also scenes that are the expressionistic extension of how Buddy sees the world, where church becomes a nightmare of low angles and underlighting or a clash between Buddy’s dad and a gang leader turns into a High Noon-esque showdown.

Zambarloukos: I think it’s about balance and earning those shots. You have to earn the silence or earn the camera movement. As an audience, the minute you feel like [you are starting to fidget] when you’re watching a film, it means we’ve probably overstayed the welcome of a particular technique. If we had tried to do, say, handheld during those silent moments, we’d have had nowhere to go in the riot scenes. If we had been static in the riot, then we’d have had nowhere to go in the dialogue scenes.

Filmmaker: During prep you took a scouting trip to Belfast with Branagh and production designer Jim Clay. How did that trip influence the look of the film?

Zambarloukos: One thing that became apparent to me was that you were always reminded that Belfast is by the sea. So, we said, “How can we add that element in?” You need the hypnotic nature of the Irish sea there every so often. Another thing that I noticed was everyone left their bikes or prams outside. I commented to Ken about that and he said, “Yes, we never felt the threat of theft growing up. And we had such small spaces to live in that we had to keep things outside.” We certainly saw a lot of people, as in the film, just sitting by their windows or their doors watching the world go by. I have a still that I took during that trip of someone with a radio by a window with a billowing curtain on the actual street that Ken grew up on. There was also a lot of graffiti. I couldn’t stop taking photos of the graffiti. It seems like that’s kind of the silent voice of the people of the city and we certainly wanted to include that in the film.

Filmmaker: Tell me about the sets. Buddy’s street was built near an airport in England?

Zambarloukos: The actual street was built at Farnborough Airport with just a facade. They didn’t lead into any of the home interiors. Those were built separately. We had one street but had to dress it in three or four different ways. So we would shoot out Buddy’s street, then flip things—change the signs, add a bit of dressing, put in different cars—to make it a different street. We built the two house [interiors]—Buddy’s and his grandparents’—side by side in a field in a disused school in the Sunningdale area.

******Spoiler Warning******

Headroom, Banding and General F-Stops: DP Haris Zambarloukos on Shooting Kenneth Branagh’s <em>Belfast</em> | Filmmaker Magazine (2)

Miracle in Milan

Filmmaker: There’s a scene where Buddy visits his grandfather (Ciarán Hinds) in the hospital and during grandpa’s single there’s a big window behind him where you can see the sun ducking in and out of clouds during a long take. Normally, that’s the kind of situation where you’d either wait for the sun to find a cloudless patch or you’d use film lights for consistency. You chose to let that scene play as is with those mid-shot lighting shifts.

Zambarloukos: I think everything we did in that scene was meant to be a little ethereal and should have a kind of magic realism to it. One of my favorite films is Miracle in Milan, the Vittorio De Sica film. It made such an impression on me. It’s been such a long time, but I distinctly remember a scene in a field and all of a sudden there is a beam of light. It’s freezing cold so everyone huddles under this beam of light. Then a cloud passes over and parts somewhere else and a new beam of light appears and everyone runs over to that one. Many years ago when I saw that for the first time it stayed in my mind and it seemed to be an appropriate thing to do in this film, to let the weather also have something to say. We shot that scene with natural lighting and practicals and I didn’t want to block all of that out. When we went outside [to get a shot] looking in through the window, Pops’s slippers by the bed are a sign that Pops is about to go to the other side. So, where you put those slippers in the frame is important. We spent time and effort to place them where we thought it felt just right. Then when we placed the two nurses next to each other they looked like angels. It was just kind of being playful with the framing, because in that scene Pops is being playful in his goodbye. I had a phrase that I thought of during the shoot. I said, “Ken, to me this movie is about the joyful participation in the sorrows of life.” That became the way that we tried to frame as well.


What camera did they shoot Belfast on? ›

For Belfast, Zambarloukos used Arri Alexa Mini LF cameras equipped with Panavision large-format System 65 lenses made in the early 1990s: “I use a particular set with very specific serial numbers.

Who was the cinematographer for Belfast? ›

Based on the early life of writer-director Kenneth Branagh, the black-and-white picture marked the seventh collaboration in 15 years between the director and cinematographer Haris Zambarloukos, BSC, GSC. The duo's eighth collaboration is set to premiere in 2022.

Is the movie Belfast in color or black-and-white? ›

Belfast review: Kenneth Branagh's drama is soft-focus coming-of-age nostalgia. How Caitriona Balfe turned an intimate story of her homeland into her biggest role yet in Belfast. Kenneth Branagh explains the very personal reason Belfast is in black-and-white.

Where did they shoot Belfast? ›

Principal photography began in September 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Filming initially took place in and around London, before moving to Belfast. The entire film was shot in seven weeks. Production concluded by October 2020.

What aspect ratio is Belfast? ›

1.85 : 1

How old is Buddy in Belfast? ›

Drawing on his own childhood experiences, Belfast — which he wrote and directed — follows nine‑year-old Buddy (Jude Hill), whose insular late-1960s neighbourhood is suddenly upended by the arrival of The Troubles.

Is Ma pregnant at the end of Belfast? ›

Caitriona Balfe was pregnant while filming 'Outlander' Season 6. Balfe said she was pregnant “not long after” Belfast wrapped. And she was pregnant while filming Outlander Season 6 afterwards.

Is Belfast black and white? ›

In cinemas February 3. Kenneth Branagh creates a black and white world in Belfast, a film inspired by memories of his childhood in Northern Ireland at its most turbulent. And there are stark contrasts in more than just monochromatic cinematography.

Is Belfast a true story? ›

Not exactly. It was heavily inspired by writer and director Kenneth Branagh's real life, but it isn't a straight up biopic. Buddy is a a fictionalised version of Branagh. The Troubles forced his Protestant, working-class family to leave Northern Ireland.

Is Belfast a sad movie? ›

Based largely on director Kenneth Branagh's own childhood in Belfast, the film is a bittersweet love letter to the city, and a heartbreaking look at how that city was torn apart in The Troubles.

Why was Roma in black and white? ›

Rather early in the development of Roma, Cuarón decided he wanted to film in black and white — a fitting choice for a film looking into the past — but in a way that he hadn't seen before. He did not want a vintage feel, but a digital black-and-white that looked the part.

How can I watch Belfast on TV? ›

Belfast, a drama movie starring Caitriona Balfe, Judi Dench, and Jamie Dornan is available to stream now. Watch it on HBO Max, Spectrum TV, ROW8, Vudu Movie & TV Store, VUDU, Prime Video or Redbox.

Is Belfast Catholic or Protestant? ›

In the Belfast City Council and Derry and Strabane District Council areas, the figures at ward level vary from 99% Protestant to 92% Catholic.

Do you need a passport to go to Belfast? ›

Most people need a valid passport to enter the Republic or Northern Ireland but there are some exceptions: If you're a UK citizen, you can also use official photo identification.

What is the meaning of Belfast? ›

The name Belfast derives from the Irish Béal Feirsde, later spelt Béal Feirste (Irish pronunciation: [bʲeːlˠ ˈfʲɛɾˠ(ə)ʃtʲə]) The word béal means "mouth" or "river-mouth" while feirsde/feirste is the genitive singular of fearsaid and refers to a sandbar or tidal ford across a river's mouth.

What is Belfast known for? ›

Belfast is the capital and largest city in Northern Ireland, and there are so many things to do in Belfast! Belfast is probably best known for being where the RMS Titanic was built as well as for the violence and suffering here during The Troubles in the later part of the 20th century.

Is Belfast in Ireland or the UK? ›

Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland. The nation is part of the United Kingdom, along with England, Scotland and Wales.

What was the conflict in Belfast in 1969? ›

Background. Northern Ireland was destabilised in 1968 by sporadic rioting arising out of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) campaign, and the police and loyalist reaction to it. The civil rights campaign demanded an end to discrimination against Catholics in voting rights, housing and employment.

Why did Grandma stay in Belfast? ›

She made the selfless decision to stay behind because someone had to. Because that's what parents and grandparents do—they let go. They don't want you to look back because they'll do it for you. They'll carry the crosses, so you don't have to.

Who is boy in Belfast? ›

Jude Hill, (born 2010), is a Northern Irish child actor. He is known for his lead role in Kenneth Branagh's film Belfast (2021) based on Branagh's childhood, for which Hill won the Critics' Choice Award for Best Young Performer.

Who is the grandmother in Belfast? ›

The writer and director of Belfast was portraying St Francis of Assisi at the Greenwich Theatre in London in the early 1980s and his granny, played by Judi Dench in his new film, left Northern Ireland for the first time to travel across the water to see the production.

Does Belfast have a happy ending? ›

Pa takes Buddy to bid farewell to Catherine on the morning of their departure. He takes flowers and a letter to her, and she gifts him a book on mathematics. The innocently adoring relationship is ended off as the two make promises to return and meet again.

What was the alternate ending to Belfast? ›

In the alternate version, Branagh planned to come back to Belfast as his older self but cut himself out of the role. He said: “There was one version of the film where an older version of Buddy returns to Belfast, and I'll give you three guesses who that actor was. But in the end, the sequence just didn't feel right.”

Who is pregnant Outlander? ›

Caitríona was pregnant for real this time and I don't know how she did it,” Heughan shared with SheKnows. Balfe announced the birth of her first child back in August 2021. “I think she hid it really well; she had so much energy. And in the height of winter in Scotland.”

What is the theme of the film Belfast? ›

Family is the film's beating heart. Buddy is close to his loving grandparents, cousins, brother and parents. Every decision Ma and Pa make is to keep the family safe, together.

Is the film Belfast about the Troubles? ›

Based on writer-director Kenneth Branagh's own life, “Belfast” is the story of a Protestant family driven out of Northern Ireland by the same Protestant Loyalist forces that were attempting to purge certain neighborhoods of Catholics in what became known as the Troubles.

Why was film black and white? ›

But more importantly, black and white changes a movie thematically, providing atmosphere, tone, and visually providing stark contrasts and a dreamlike view of the world. It can at once make a film feel more real (like time period accurate film and photographs) while making it feel unreal (real life is in color).

What started the war in Belfast? ›

The conflict began during a campaign by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association to end discrimination against the Catholic/nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government and local authorities.

Who was Catherine in Belfast? ›

Olivia Tennant as Catherine - Catherine is a classmate of Buddy's and the girl he has a crush on throughout Belfast. Branagh's film marks Olivia Tennant's feature film debut.

Who is Belfast based on? ›

Is Belfast based on a true story? Kenneth Branagh has said repeatedly that the film is based on his own experiences of growing up in Belfast as a child. Branagh, who was born in the Tiger's Bay area of north Belfast, left with his family to move to England whenever the troubles started in 1969.

Is Belfast suitable for 13 year olds? ›

Belfast Age Rating is PG-13 for intense sequences of violence, and brief strong language.

Is Coda good for kids? ›

CODA is rated PG-13.

Common Sense Media, a site that gives more in-depth descriptions of film ratings than the Motion Picture Association (and their own age recommendations) agrees with this assessment, suggesting the movie would be appropriate for viewers 13 and older.

What age rating is licorice pizza? ›

Licorice Pizza | 2021 | R | – 4.3.

What language does Cleo speak in Roma? ›

Cleo hails from Oaxaca, and converses intermittently with her fellow housekeeper, Adela, in a Mixtec language, one of around fifty spoken by the indigenous people in the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Peubla, and Guerrero.

Why is Roma considered so good? ›

“Roma” celebrates life in the face of monotony and adversity, captures the feeling of being overlooked and being the center of a family's life. It is beautiful in its complications, surrealistic flourishes and thematic imagery. And “Roma” is most certainly a movie worth watching in this trying year.

What is the message of Roma? ›

This movie was a personal message to the perpetrators of systematic oppression and racism.

Is Belfast coming to Netflix? ›

As of yet, there has been no confirmation that Belfast will be added to Netflix. Belfast is a Focus Features/Universal film, with Universal been known for releasing their movies on digital usually a few months after they have launched in the cinema.

Can I watch CODA without Apple TV? ›

CODA is an Apple TV original movie. This means that it's available to stream exclusively through the Apple TV Plus streaming service, for which you need to be an Apple TV Plus subscriber to access.

Where can I watch the CODA movie? ›

CODA is now available to stream for all Apple TV+ subscribers. In case you're not signed up for the streaming service yet, Apple TV+ offers a seven-day free trial to begin with.

Was Belfast nominated for an Oscar? ›


Why was film black and white? ›

But more importantly, black and white changes a movie thematically, providing atmosphere, tone, and visually providing stark contrasts and a dreamlike view of the world. It can at once make a film feel more real (like time period accurate film and photographs) while making it feel unreal (real life is in color).

How old is actor Kenneth Branagh? ›

Does the movie Belfast have a soundtrack? ›

The soundtrack features several tracks from Belfast-born musician Van Morrison. Sir Kenneth Branagh's film Belfast has received seven nominations at this year's Oscars and six at the BAFTA Awards.

Did Belfast film win any Oscars? ›


Did Belfast win anything at the Oscars? ›

Belfast (2021 movie)

Branagh took home Best Original Screenplay for his latest film, Belfast, during the Oscars ceremony, which was telecast on ABC Sunday night. "This story is the search for joy and hope in the face of violence and loss," Branagh said during his acceptance speech.

Has Kenneth Branagh ever won an Oscar? ›

Kenneth Branagh

What was the first color? ›

The team of researchers discovered bright pink pigment in rocks taken from deep beneath the Sahara in Africa. The pigment was dated at 1.1 billion years old, making it the oldest color on geological record.

What color is gone with the wind? ›

Gone with the Wind (USA 1939, Victor Fleming) is one of the most famous Technicolor films. It is highly sophisticated both with regard to its color scheme and the subtle use of light and shadows.

Was Wizard of Oz filmed in color? ›

All the Oz sequences were filmed in three-strip Technicolor. The opening and closing credits, and the Kansas sequences, were filmed in black and white and colored in a sepia-tone process.

Is the movie Belfast anti Catholic? ›

Belfast (2021) is a family drama set during the “Troubles” of Northern Ireland, with a lighthearted aspect that brings a new outlook on the violence. The film's recount of the Troubles, or the Anti-Catholic riots spanning from the 1960s to 1998, holds modern relevance as a story about protest and bigotry.

Why did Kenneth Branagh withdraw from Thor 2? ›

Kenneth Branagh was too tired to direct the Thor sequel.

How old is Emma Thompson? ›

Did Jamie Dornan really sing in the movie Belfast? ›

To clarify, Dornan doesn't just love to karaoke. The actor, who plays Pa in Kenneth Branagh's “Belfast,” performs the tune in the film.

Can Jamie Dornan sing? ›

I can sing a bit, but that's a hard song to sing," Dornan told EW of the emotional power ballad. He added that he likes the idea of doing some kind of musical in the future: "I'm not a good enough singer to, like, front a musical, but I could definitely do something in that world, maybe."

Is Belfast based on Kenneth Branagh's life? ›

However, he has also described Belfast as his most personal movie, saying that "It had been swirling around for the last 50 years, a sort of understanding that a certain kind of life that was so mapped out for me at the age of 9 where I absolutely understood who I was." So, while Belfast isn't strictly a true story, it ...

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