Interactive System Design (2022)

Interactive System Design (1)

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(Video) Introduction to Design and Evaluation of Interactive Systems
(Video) Interactive System Design Life Cycle Explained in Hindi l Human Computer Interaction Course

The objective of this chapter is to learn all the aspects of design and development of interactive systems, which are now an important part of our lives. The design and usability of these systems leaves an effect on the quality of people’s relationship to technology. Web applications, games, embedded devices, etc., are all a part of this system, which has become an integral part of our lives. Let us now discuss on some major components of this system.

Concept of Usability Engineering

Usability Engineering is a method in the progress of software and systems, which includes user contribution from the inception of the process and assures the effectiveness of the product through the use of a usability requirement and metrics.

It thus refers to the Usability Function features of the entire process of abstracting, implementing & testing hardware and software products. Requirements gathering stage to installation, marketing and testing of products, all fall in this process.

Goals of Usability Engineering

  • Effective to use − Functional
  • Efficient to use − Efficient
  • Error free in use − Safe
  • Easy to use − Friendly
  • Enjoyable in use − Delightful Experience

Usability

Usability has three components − effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction, using which, users accomplish their goals in particular environments. Let us look in brief about these components.

  • Effectiveness − The completeness with which users achieve their goals.

  • Efficiency − The competence used in using the resources to effectively achieve the goals.

  • Satisfaction − The ease of the work system to its users.

Usability Study

The methodical study on the interaction between people, products, and environment based on experimental assessment. Example: Psychology, Behavioral Science, etc.

Usability Testing

The scientific evaluation of the stated usability parameters as per the user’s requirements, competences, prospects, safety and satisfaction is known as usability testing.

Acceptance Testing

Acceptance testing also known as User Acceptance Testing (UAT), is a testing procedure that is performed by the users as a final checkpoint before signing off from a vendor. Let us take an example of the handheld barcode scanner.

Let us assume that a supermarket has bought barcode scanners from a vendor. The supermarket gathers a team of counter employees and make them test the device in a mock store setting. By this procedure, the users would determine if the product is acceptable for their needs. It is required that the user acceptance testing "pass" before they receive the final product from the vendor.

Software Tools

A software tool is a programmatic software used to create, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. Some of the commonly used software tools in HCI are as follows −

  • Specification Methods − The methods used to specify the GUI. Even though these are lengthy and ambiguous methods, they are easy to understand.

    (Video) Interactive Design Systems: Webinar with Johnson & Johnson

  • Grammars − Written Instructions or Expressions that a program would understand. They provide confirmations for completeness and correctness.

  • Transition Diagram − Set of nodes and links that can be displayed in text, link frequency, state diagram, etc. They are difficult in evaluating usability, visibility, modularity and synchronization.

  • Statecharts − Chart methods developed for simultaneous user activities and external actions. They provide link-specification with interface building tools.

  • Interface Building Tools − Design methods that help in designing command languages, data-entry structures, and widgets.

  • Interface Mockup Tools − Tools to develop a quick sketch of GUI. E.g., Microsoft Visio, Visual Studio .Net, etc.

  • Software Engineering Tools − Extensive programming tools to provide user interface management system.

  • Evaluation Tools − Tools to evaluate the correctness and completeness of programs.

HCI and Software Engineering

Software engineering is the study of designing, development and preservation of software. It comes in contact with HCI to make the man and machine interaction more vibrant and interactive.

Let us see the following model in software engineering for interactive designing.

The Waterfall Method

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Interactive System Design

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The uni-directional movement of the waterfall model of Software Engineering shows that every phase depends on the preceding phase and not vice-versa. However, this model is not suitable for the interactive system design.

The interactive system design shows that every phase depends on each other to serve the purpose of designing and product creation. It is a continuous process as there is so much to know and users keep changing all the time. An interactive system designer should recognize this diversity.

Prototyping

Prototyping is another type of software engineering models that can have a complete range of functionalities of the projected system.

In HCI, prototyping is a trial and partial design that helps users in testing design ideas without executing a complete system.

Example of a prototype can be Sketches. Sketches of interactive design can later be produced into graphical interface. See the following diagram.

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The above diagram can be considered as a Low Fidelity Prototype as it uses manual procedures like sketching in a paper.

(Video) How to Build Interactive Systems Using Machine Learning

A Medium Fidelity Prototype involves some but not all procedures of the system. E.g., first screen of a GUI.

Finally, a Hi Fidelity Prototype simulates all the functionalities of the system in a design. This prototype requires, time, money and work force.

User Centered Design (UCD)

The process of collecting feedback from users to improve the design is known as user centered design or UCD.

UCD Drawbacks

  • Passive user involvement.
  • User’s perception about the new interface may be inappropriate.
  • Designers may ask incorrect questions to users.

Interactive System Design Life Cycle (ISLC)

The stages in the following diagram are repeated until the solution is reached.

Diagram

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GUI Design & Aesthetics

Graphic User Interface (GUI) is the interface from where a user can operate programs, applications or devices in a computer system. This is where the icons, menus, widgets, labels exist for the users to access.

It is significant that everything in the GUI is arranged in a way that is recognizable and pleasing to the eye, which shows the aesthetic sense of the GUI designer. GUI aesthetics provides a character and identity to any product.

HCI in Indian Industries

For the past couple of years, majority IT companies in India are hiring designers for HCI related activities. Even multi-national companies started hiring for HCI from India as Indian designers have proven their capabilities in architectural, visual and interaction designs. Thus, Indian HCI designers are not only making a mark in the country, but also abroad.

The profession has boomed in the last decade even when the usability has been there forever. And since new products are developed frequently, the durability prognosis also looks great.

As per an estimation made on usability specialists, there are mere 1,000 experts in India. The overall requirement is around 60,000. Out of all the designers working in the country, HCI designers count for approximately 2.77%.

HCI Analogy

Let us take a known analogy that can be understood by everyone. A film director is a person who with his/her experience can work on script writing, acting, editing, and cinematography. He/She can be considered as the only person accountable for all the creative phases of the film.

Similarly, HCI can be considered as the film director whose job is part creative and part technical. An HCI designer have substantial understanding of all areas of designing. The following diagram depicts the analogy −

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FAQs

Interactive System Design? ›

The interactive system design shows that every phase depends on each other to serve the purpose of designing and product creation. It is a continuous process as there is so much to know and users keep changing all the time. An interactive system designer should recognize this diversity.

What is the goal of interactive system design? ›

The goal of interaction design is to create products that enable the user to achieve their objective(s) in the best way possible.

What is an interactive system? ›

Interactive systems are computer systems characterized by significant amounts of interaction between humans and the computer. Most users have grown up using Macintosh or Windows computer operating systems, which are prime examples of graphical interactive systems.

What are the main features of interactive systems? ›

Main characteristics of interactive systems. Input -- events triggered by users by means of input devices. Action by users must trigger an output provided by the system. Input and output are interleaved.

What are the four major components of an interactive system? ›

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has four main components: the user, task, tools / interface, the context.

What are examples of interactive system? ›

However, the term 'interactive system' can be applied to a much broader range of devices, for example:
  • Mobile telephones.
  • Cash dispensing machines.
  • The World Wide Web.
  • Car navigation systems.
  • Video recorders.
  • Machines driven call centres (e.g. for telephone banking).
  • Workflow system to co-ordinate a teams work-efforts.

What are the components of interactive design? ›

The 5 dimensions of interaction design
  • 1D: Words. Words—especially those used in interactions, like button labels—should be meaningful and simple to understand. ...
  • 2D: Visual representations. ...
  • 3D: Physical objects or space. ...
  • 4D: Time. ...
  • 5D: Behaviour. ...
  • Design strategy. ...
  • Wireframes and prototypes.

What is the importance of interactive system? ›

Interactive systems are easy to use. These systems are used in testing phase also like testing interface elements and before launching product all items can be checked accurately. It is used in the medical field like cardiac device and different chips used in the body which sends signals to the computer screen.

What is interactive system development? ›

A development framework refers to a modular approach for interactive program development where the core computational and interface parts are developed in a modularized fashion and combined in a flexible manner.

What are the main stages of an interactive system design life cycle? ›

The IxD process involves 5 stages: discovering what users need/want, analyzing that, designing a potential solution, prototyping it and implementing and deploying it.

What are the 3 characteristics of interactive design? ›

Key characteristics of the interaction design process are explicit incorporation of user involvement, iteration and specific usability criteria. Before you can begin to establish requirements, you must understand who the users are and what their goals are in using the device.

What is a good interaction design? ›

Interaction design seeks to go beyond making something merely work well, but focuses instead on creating an experience for the user that feels intuitive, exciting and ultimately leaves them feeling like they've encountered something great.

What are the advantages of interactive? ›

Here are the benefits you can expect when you switch to interactive learning.
  • An Enhanced Learning Environment Fosters Creativity. ...
  • Improved Decision-Making Through Mindful Practice. ...
  • Reinforcement Of Learning Through Feedback. ...
  • Higher Levels Of Engagement. ...
  • Greater Retention Rates. ...
  • Increased Motivation In Learners.
Nov 16, 2020

What is usability of interactive systems? ›

Usability. Usability has three components − effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction, using which, users accomplish their goals in particular environments. Let us look in brief about these components. Effectiveness − The completeness with which users achieve their goals.

What are the 7 principles of human computer interaction? ›

Norman's Seven Principles

Make things visible. Get the mapping right (User mental model = Conceptual model = Designed model). Convert constrains into advantages (Physical constraints, Cultural constraints, Technological constraints). Design for Error.

How does an interactive system differ from a non interactive system? ›

Interactive Mode means that you can use the web page like normal navigating. You can type into it, click on links, etc. Non-Interactive Mode means that you cannot use the browser, think of it like the page is read-only.

What is the goal of interactive system design Mcq? ›

Q.The goal of interactive systems design is
B.designing for maximum usability
C.working within the constraints
D.none of the above
Answer» b. designing for maximum usability
1 more row

What are the goals of interactive system design with respect to usability engineering? ›

Effectiveness − The completeness with which users achieve their goals. Efficiency − The competence used in using the resources to effectively achieve the goals. Satisfaction − The ease of the work system to its users.

What is the interaction design process? ›

The interaction design process consists of four basic activities: establishing requirements, designing alternatives that meet those requirements, prototyping the designs so that they can be communicated and assessed, and evaluating them.

What is a good interaction design? ›

Interaction design seeks to go beyond making something merely work well, but focuses instead on creating an experience for the user that feels intuitive, exciting and ultimately leaves them feeling like they've encountered something great.

Videos

1. Towards Decomposable Interactive Systems: Design of a Backyard-Degradable Wireless Heating Interface
(ACM SIGCHI)
2. The Principle To Support Usability In Interactive Systems Design(Learnability and Flexibility)
(Davidco Mah)
3. [Preview] Towards Decomposable Interactive Systems: Design of a Backyard-Degradable Wireless ...
(ACM SIGCHI)
4. Whatsapp System Design: Chat Messaging Systems for Interviews
(Gaurav Sen)
5. HCI: Basics of Interactive design
(Anwar Ali Sathio PowerShell Academy)
6. Create interactive prototypes with MS PowerPoint
(Raphaël Velt)

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