Technologies Used In Drones - Drolan (2022)

Technologies Used In Drones - Drolan (1)

1. Radar Positioning & Return Home:

The latest drones have dual Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS and GLONASS. Drones can fly in both GNSS and non-satellite modes.

Highly accurate drone navigation is very important when flying, especially in drone applications such as creating 3D maps, surveying landscapes and SAR (Search & Rescue) missions.

When the quadcopter is first switched on, it searches and detects GNSS satellites. High-end GNSS systems useSatellite Constellation technology. Basically, asatellite constellationis a group ofsatellitesworking together giving coordinated coverage and are synchronized, so that they overlap well in coverage. Pass or coverage is the period in which a satellite is visible above the local horizon.

UAV Drone GNSS On Ground Station Remote Controller

The radar technology will signal the following on the remote controller display;

  • Signal that enough drone GNSS satellites have been detected and the drone is ready to fly
  • Display the current position and location of the drone in relation to the pilot
  • Record the home point for the ‘Return to Home’ safety feature

Most of the latest UAVs have 3 types of Return to Home drone technology as follows;

  • The pilot initiated his return home by pressing the button on Remote Controller or in an app
  • A low battery level, where the UAV will fly automatically back to the home point
  • Loss of contact between the UAV and Remote Controller, with the UAV flying back automatically to its home point.

2. Obstacle Detection And Collision Avoidance Technology:

The latest high-tech drones are now equipped with collision avoidance systems. These use obstacle detection sensors to scan the surroundings, while software algorithms and SLAM technology produce the images into 3D maps allowing the drone to sense and avoid. These systems fuse one or more of the following sensors to sense and avoid;

  • Vision Sensor
  • Ultrasonic
  • Infrared
  • Lidar
  • Time of Flight (ToF)
  • Monocular Vision

Most of the latest drones have obstacle sensing on all 6 sides. The Drones use both Vision and Infrared sensors fused into a vision system known as Omni-directional Obstacle Sensing.

The Drone obstacle sensing system is top drone technology. The Drones will sense objects, and then fly around obstacles in front. It can do the same when flying backwards. Or hover if it is not possible to fly around the obstacle. This technology is known as APAS (Advanced Pilot Assistance System).

3. Gyroscope Stabilization, IMU And Flight Controllers:

Gyro stabilization technology gives the UAV drone its smooth flight capabilities.

The gyroscope works almost instantly to the forces moving against the drone, keeping it flying or hovering very smoothly. The gyroscope provides essential navigational information to the central flight controller.

The inertial measurement unit (IMU) works by detecting the current rate of acceleration using one or moreaccelerometers. The IMU detects changes in rotational attributes like pitch, roll and yaw using one or moregyroscopes. Some IMU includes amagnetometerto assist with calibration against orientation drift.

The Gyroscope is a component of the IMU and the IMU is an essential component of the drone’s flight controller.The flight controller is the central brain of the drone.

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4. UAV Drone Propulsion Technology:

The propulsion system (motors, electronic speed controllers and propellers) is the drone technology, which moves the UAV into the air and to fly in any direction or hover. On a quadcopter, the motors and propellers work in pairs with 2 motors/propellers rotating clockwise (CW Propellers) and 2 motors rotating Counter Clockwise (CCW Propellers).

They receive data from the flight controller and the electronic speed controllers (ESC) on the drone motor direction to either fly or hover.

Top UAV drone motors and propulsion systems are highly advanced and include the following components;

  • Motor Starter
  • Motor Bell (rotor)
  • Windings
  • Bearings
  • Cooling System
  • Electronic Speed Controllers
  • ESC Updater
  • Propellers
  • Wiring
  • Arm

The Electronic Speed Controllers signal to the drone motors information on speed, and braking and also provide monitoring and fault tolerance on the drone motors.

5. Real-time Telemetry Flight Parameters:

Nearly all drones have a Ground Station Controller (GSC) or a smartphone app, allowing you to fly the drone and keep track of the current flight telemetry. Telemetry data showing on the remote controller many include UAV range, height, speed, GNSS strength, remaining battery power and warnings.

Many UAV drone ground controllers use FPV (First Person View), which transmits the video from the drone to the controller or mobile device.

6. FPV Live Video Transmission Drone Technology:

FPVmeans “First Person View”. A video camera is mounted on the unmanned aerial vehicle and this camera broadcasts the live video to the pilot on the ground. The ground pilot is flying the aircraft as if they were on board the aircraft instead of looking at the aircraft from the pilot’s actual ground position.

FPV allows the unmanned aircraft to fly much higher and further than you can from looking at the aircraft from the ground. First Person View allows for more precise flying, especially around obstacles. FPV allows unmanned aerial vehicles to fly very easily indoors, or through forests and around buildings.

The exceptionally fast growth and development of the drone racing league would not be possible without FPV live video transmission technology. This FPV technology uses radio signals to transmit and receive live video.

The drone has a multi-band wireless FPV transmitter built-in along with an antenna. Depending on the drone, the receiver of the live video signals can be either the remote-control unit, a computer, tablet or smartphone device.

Drones such as theDJI Mavic 3 uses integrated controllers and intelligent algorithms to set a new standard for wireless high-definition image transmission by lowering latency and increasing maximum range and reliability.

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Technologies Used In Drones - Drolan (2)

7. Internal Compass & Failsafe Function:

Allows the UAV drone and remote-control system to know exactly its flight location. A home point can be set and this is the location the drone will return to if the drone and the remote-control system stop connecting. This is also known as a “fail-safe function”.

8. LED Flight Indicators:

These are found at the front and the rear of the drone. Generally, drone LEDs will be green, yellow or red. The front LED indicators to light up to indicate the nose of the UAV. The rear LEDs flight indicators light up to indicate the various states of the drone when power on, getting a firmware upgrade and flying.

It is good to understand what the flashing LEDs on your quadcopter indicate. All drones come with a user manual, which lists what each type of flashing LED mean.

9. Range Extender UAV Technology:

This is a wireless communication device which generally operates within the 2.4 GHz frequency. It is used to extend the range of communication between the smartphone or tablet and the drone in an open unobstructed area. Transmission distance can reach up to 700 meters. Each range extender has a unique MAC address and network name (SSID).

10. Smartphone App Featuring Ground Station Function:

Most UAV drones today can be flown by a remote controller or from a smartphone app, which can be downloaded from Google Play or the Apple Store. The app allows for full control of the drone.

11. Smartphone App Featuring Ground Station Function:

Most UAV drones today can be flown by a remote controller or from a smartphone app, which can be downloaded from Google Play or the Apple Store. The app allows for full control of the drone.

12. Drones with High-Performance Camera:

The latest drones like DJI Mini 3 Proand other manufacturers now include cameras, which can shoot film in 4k video and can take 12-megapixel stills.

Technologies Used In Drones - Drolan (3)

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The earlier drones used cameras, which were not fully suitable for aerial filming. These aerial shots had barrel distortion because of the wide-angle lens.

However, the latest 4k video drones such asDJI Mavic 3 have a camera which is specifically designed for aerial filming and photography.

Gimbals & Tilt Control

Gimbal technology is vital to capturing quality aerial photos, film or 3D imagery.

The gimbal allows the camera to tilt while in flight, creating unique angles. More importantly, the gimbal reduces camera vibration. These are mostly 3 axes stabilized gimbals with 2 working modes. Non-FPV mode and FPV mode.

Practically all the latest drones have integrated gimbals and cameras. The leader in aerial gimbal technology is DJI with their Zenmuse range. You can read further ondrone gimbal design here.

Cinematography Drones Without Gimbals

At CES a few years back, a company called Ambarella announced the H22 chip for cameras in drones. This H22 chip allows the camera to film in 4k HD video and includes electronic image stabilization, removing the camera gimbal.

13. Drones With Sensors To Create 3D Maps And Models Using Sensor Fusion:

Lidar, Multispectral and Photogrammetry sensors are being used to build 3D models of buildings and landscapes. Low light night vision and Thermal vision sensors are being used on drones to scan buildings and landscapes to assist in agriculture, firefighting, search and rescue.

Drones can carry different sensors with the software combining the data together for better results. This technology is known as sensor fusion and works as follows;

Sensor fusion is software, which intelligently combines data from several different sensors such as a thermal camera and a regular RGB camera sensor for the purpose of improving application or system performance. Combining data from multiple sensors corrects the errors from individual sensors to calculate the accurate position and orientation information.

For example, multispectral sensors on drones can create Digital Elevation Maps (DEMS) of land areas to provide precision data on the health of crops, flowers, fauna, shrubs and trees.

In 2016, drones using Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensors came on the market. ToF sensors, also known as “Flash Lidar” can be used on their own or with RGB and regular lidar sensors to provide various solutions across the sectors.

ToF depth-ranging camera sensors can be used for object scanning, indoor navigation, obstacle avoidance, gesture recognition, tracking objects, measuring volumes, reactive altimeters, 3D photography, augmented reality games and much more.

Flash lidar Time-of-Flight cameras have a huge advantage over other technologies, as it is able to measure distances to objects within a complete scene in a single shot.

For lidar and photogrammetry mapping, the UAV is programmed to fly over an area autonomously, using waypoint navigation. The camera on the drone will take photographs at 0.5 or 1-second intervals. These photos are then stitched together using specialized photogrammetry software to create the 3D images.

DroneDeploy is one of the leaders in the creation of 3D mapping software. Their mobile app and Live Map are being used in various sectors for creating 3D maps and models. They have a specialized solution for the agriculture sector and their software will work with most of the latest drones.

Capturing high-resolution images on a stabilized drone is very important. Using top photogrammetry software to process the images into real maps and models is just as important. Some of the top drone mapping software is as follows;

  • DroneDeploy 3D Mapping Solutions
  • Pix4D Mapper Photogrammetry Software
  • Autodesk ReCap Photogrammetry Software
  • Maps Made Easy – Orthophoto and 3D Models
  • 3DF Zephyr Photogrammetry Software
  • Agisoft PhotoScan Photogrammetry Software
  • PrecisionHawk Precision Mapper / Viewer
  • Open Drone Map
  • ESRI Drone2Map For ArcGIS

You can read a review of the above drone mapping software in this article on the best photogrammetry software for 3D maps.

14. Anti-Drop Kit:

Helps to keep the stabilizer and camera connected to the unmanned aircraft.

15. Video Editing Software:

Having excellent quality video software is essential for post-processing. Most of the latest drones can film in Adobe DNG raw, which means that all the original image information is retained for later processing.

16. Operating Systems In Drone Technology:

Most unmanned aircraft use Linux and a few MS Windows. The Linux Foundation have a project launched in 2014 called the Dronecode project.

The Dronecode Project is an open-source, collaborative project which brings together existing and future open-source unmanned aerial vehicle projects under a nonprofit structure governed by The Linux Foundation. The result is a common, shared open-source platform for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).

FAQs

What technology is used for drone technology? ›

The IMU is a technology that can detect the current acceleration rate using one or more accelerometers. It does so by detecting changes in various rotational attributes using the gyroscope. These are technologies which enable the drone to move into the air and hover, or fly in any direction.

What software is used in drones? ›

Pix4D has been in the drone mapping software game for a while. Pioneers of innovative photogrammetry software such as Pix4D Mapper was designed specifically for professional drone mapping applications.

What type of sensors are used in drones? ›

Drones utilize air pressure sensors to stabilize altitude, allowing hover capabilities needed for videography or photography. Combined with the accelerometer and gyroscope, barometric pressure sensors enable drones to fly with precision.

What are the four main sensors used in drones? ›

MTRI deploys multiple sensors aboard its fleet of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) to collect critical project data.
  • Optical Cameras. ...
  • Thermal Sensors. ...
  • Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) Sensor. ...
  • Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Sensor and Antenna Configuration. ...
  • Lightweight Portable Radiometer (LPR)

How does drone technology works? ›

Drones use their rotors—which consist of a propeller attached to a motor—to hover, meaning the downward thrust of the drone is equal to the gravitational pull working against it; climb, when pilots increase the speed until the rotors produce an upward force greater than gravity; and descend, when pilots perform the ...

Where is drone technology used? ›

Drones now have many functions, ranging from monitoring climate change to carrying out search operations after natural disasters, photography, filming, and delivering goods. But their most well-known and controversial use is by the military for reconnaissance, surveillance and targeted attacks.

Is a drone hardware or software? ›

Drones are a complex amalgamation of mechanics, hardware and software. Many drone users are not aware of the inner systems that combine to form a drone. Nor are they aware of the individual workings of the components.

What is the future of drone technology? ›

By all accounts, the prospects for the drone market look promising, with some estimates indicating that the global drone market is poised to grow by $21.01-billion from 2021 to 2025, progressing at a compound annual growth rate of 14.42% during the forecast period, explains Connolly.

How many sensors are in a drone? ›

3 axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope, Magnetometer, Barometer, GPS Sensor, Distance Sensor etc.

How many sensors are there in drone? ›

3 Types of Sensors in Drones.

What is a UAV sensor? ›

ROV & UAV Sensors: Inertial Measurement

UAV sensors also include Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), which fuse together information from different sensors such as gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers to provide measurements that can be used to calculate orientation and velocity of the drone.

How do drones stabilize? ›

A gyroscope measures the rate of rotation and helps keep the drone balanced. Gyroscopes are devices that consist of a mounted wheel that spins on an axis that is free to move in any direction. They're used to provide stability or maintain a reference direction.

How do drones measure altitude? ›

On board a drone, a barometer is used to control the flight height by detecting the atmospheric pressure change; while a GPS receiver is mainly used to determine the horizontal position of the drone. While both barometer and GPS are capable of measuring height, they are based on different algorithms.

What is drone remote sensing? ›

UAV based Remote Sensing (UAV-RS) is the new addition to the North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NE-SAC) for large-scale mapping and real time assessment and monitoring activities of various applications. NE-SAC has taken the initiative for design and assembling of UAVs for various applications.

Who is the leader in drone technology? ›

DJI: DJI is the global leader in manufacturing innovative drone and camera technology for commercial and recreational use. DJI was founded and run by people with a passion for remote-controlled helicopters and experts in flight-control technology and camera stabilization.

Who invented drone technology? ›

Abraham Karem was born in Baghdad, Iraq, to an Assyrian Jewish couple. His family moved to Israel in 1951, where he grew up. From an early age, he had an innate passion for aeronautics, and at the age of 14, he started building model aircraft. Karem is regarded as the founding father of UAV (drone) technology.

What is difference between UAV and drone? ›

A drone is an unmanned aircraft or ship that is guided remotely or autonomously. Above is a multi-copter drone, named for it's many propellers. UAV stands for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, something that can fly without a pilot onboard.

What are 5 uses for drones? ›

Our top 100 uses of drones
  • Aerial mapping and surveying. ...
  • Infrastructure monitoring for buildings, bridges, pipelines, and railways. ...
  • Geological mapping. ...
  • Agriculture. ...
  • Commercial and Retail. ...
  • Conservation. ...
  • Disaster relief and emergency response. ...
  • Disease control.
9 Jun 2021

What is a drone and UAV technology? ›

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without any human pilot, crew, or passengers on board. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), which includes adding a ground-based controller and a system of communications with the UAV.

How are drones designed? ›

A typical unmanned aircraft is made of light composite materials to reduce weight and increase maneuverability. This composite material strength allows military drones to cruise at extremely high altitudes.

What type of Engineers make drones? ›

Introduction. Drone engineers develop drones based on their knowledge of different branches of engineering, such as aeronautical, electronics and electrical, mechanical, and robotics engineering. Also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), drones may be used for commercial, consumer, or combat purposes.

Which battery is used for drone? ›

Lithium polymer (LiPo) batteries are among the most common battery types used for drones because they offer the advantage of high energy density in relation to their size and weight, with a higher voltage per cell, so they can power the drone's on-board systems with fewer cells than other rechargeables.

Why is a drone called a drone? ›

There were two meanings for drone then: a "male bee," or a "monotonous, sustained sound." Which was the inspiration for applying the term? The aircraft's function can clue you in: it's an extension of the "bee" meaning. Drones are bigger and heavier than worker bees, and they leave the hive and swarm in the fall.

How long can a drone fly? ›

A typical consumer drone can fly typically between 10 to 30 minutes, while more advanced professional drones can fly for even an hour or more.

What is the impact of drone technology? ›

Developing drones to be able to, for example, administer medicine could dramatically improve survival rates of people in more remote areas. In relation to emergency response, drones could be helpful during times of natural disaster. Drones may be able to access areas cut off by floods, hurricanes and earthquakes.

What are the benefits of drone technology? ›

6 Benefits Of Drones And Drone Technology
  • Makes Inspections More Efficient. ...
  • Helps Greatly With Scientific Research. ...
  • Makes Delivery Easier. ...
  • Helps Emergency Responders Save Lives. ...
  • Military Applications. ...
  • Great For Recording Your Videos and Capturing Photos.

What is the positive impact of drone technology? ›

Drones are having huge positive effects in animal conservation and habitat protection. UAV's are helping especially in wildlife monitoring, geographic mapping and environmental law enforcement.

Which sensor is used to measure the altitude of drone? ›

The most common used sensors in commercial drones to determine its altitude are IMUs (accelerometer and gyroscope), GPS (Global Positioning Systems) and barometers [4]. Altitude can be determined by GPS, altimeter, radar, or laser. Attitude can be provided by Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and motion by GPS or radar.

What is the use of tilt sensor? ›

Tilt Sensors are also known as inclinometers. They are a type of position sensor used to measure angles or the slope of an object. Inclinometers are one of the most common types of position sensors available and are used throughout many industries.

What is a drone flight controller? ›

The flight controller is the brain of the drone, which controls the motors and ESCs in the drone. It is an electronics board in which sensors, processors, communication protocols, and transmitter pins are installed. A flight controller controls every aspect of the drone. It moves the drone by changing the motors' RPM.

What is drone IMU? ›

An IMU (inertial measurement unit) is a device that combines inertial sensors – gyroscopes and accelerometers – to provide acceleration and orientation data that can be used to calculate position and velocity.

How does a drone magnetometer work? ›

The 3-axis sensor provides information about the Earth's magnetic vector coordinates and the accelerometer sensor measures the angles between the compass and gravity, so that the heading vector components may be estimated and the error subtracted from the reading. Error Correction in UAV Navigation Systems.

How does geofencing work on drones? ›

Geofencing is the enforcement of virtual restrictions on drones using a combination of Global Positioning Satellites, WiFi, Radio Frequency Identification, and your drones' internal software. Geofencing is a safety measure that restricts access to restricted areas.

What is accelerometer in UAV? ›

Accelerometers are used to determine position and orientation of the drone in flight. Like your Nintendo Wii controller or your iPhone screen position, these small silicon-based sensors play a key role in maintaining flight control.

How does a drone rotate? ›

Quadcopters generally have two rotors spinning clockwise (CW) and two counterclockwise (CCW). Flight control is provided by independent variation of the speed and hence lift and torque of each rotor. Pitch and roll are controlled by varying the net centre of thrust, with yaw controlled by varying the net torque.

What is a gyroscope sensor? ›

A gyroscope sensor is a device that is used to measure and maintain the orientation and angular velocity of an object. This sensor is also known by various names such as Angular Rate Sensor or Angular Velocity Sensors.

Can drone measure distance? ›

While surveying with drones, images of the ground are taken from multiple vantage points. Through processing these images, a photogrammetry software can then create orthomosaics and 3D models, from which it can measure accurate distance, as well as surfaces and volumes of physical objects.

Do drones have altimeter? ›

Altimeters are one of the essential sensors in a drone. They are reliable but may not entirely be accurate. Several factors influence the altimeter accuracy of drones and some of these are not easy to control. The good news is that altitude readings of drones typically drift within an acceptable range of values.

Can drones measure roofs? ›

Increase productivity and improve safety. An aerial drone roof inspection can speed up the inspection process, and reduce the risk of work accidents and damage to the client's property. It is also incredibly precise, with drone roof inspection measurements 99.4% accurate.

What are UAV platforms? ›

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Our drones are semi-small, portable and hand-launched solutions, capable of generating reliable and high precision data and situational awareness. All our UAV solutions are extremely user-friendly both when operating and deploying the aircraft.

Is drone an example of remote sensing? ›

Recent developments in the technology of drones (UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), etc.) have opened up important new possibilities in the field of remote sensing so that drones can be regarded as the third generation of platforms generating remotely sensed data of the surface the Earth.

What is smart drone? ›

A smart drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that uses intelligent applications to perform complex operations. A UAV is operated by radio remote control and is mainly used to replace humans to complete aerial tasks.

What is drone technology in security services? ›

Security and surveillance drones are the ideal tool for security and emergency responders to monitor a situation in real-time and respond as it happens. The high definition imagery provided by security drones allow for accurate and real-time response.

Why do we use drone technology? ›

From military bases, search and rescue efforts, to your front door—drones can help make monotonous or dangerous tasks more efficient. The adoption of drone technology around the world also offers: Increased work efficiency and productivity. Decreased workload and production costs.

What is the future drone technology in society? ›

In future, drones will transport supplies to the remote or inaccessible areas. They will deliver medical supplies and vaccines to remote locations, dangerous places, inaccessible places as well as places affected by war or contagious diseases.

What is drone technology in media and communication? ›

Drone technology allows journalists to take footage of news events such as volcanic eruptions, war-torn villages, and natural disasters. Because drones are operated remotely, journalists see it as safer and cost-efficient means of video recording, especially in highly vulnerable coverage.

Who invented drone technology? ›

Abraham Karem was born in Baghdad, Iraq, to an Assyrian Jewish couple. His family moved to Israel in 1951, where he grew up. From an early age, he had an innate passion for aeronautics, and at the age of 14, he started building model aircraft. Karem is regarded as the founding father of UAV (drone) technology.

What is the impact of drone technology? ›

Developing drones to be able to, for example, administer medicine could dramatically improve survival rates of people in more remote areas. In relation to emergency response, drones could be helpful during times of natural disaster. Drones may be able to access areas cut off by floods, hurricanes and earthquakes.

What are 5 uses for drones? ›

Our top 100 uses of drones
  • Aerial mapping and surveying. ...
  • Infrastructure monitoring for buildings, bridges, pipelines, and railways. ...
  • Geological mapping. ...
  • Agriculture. ...
  • Commercial and Retail. ...
  • Conservation. ...
  • Disaster relief and emergency response. ...
  • Disease control.
9 Jun 2021

Who is the leader in drone technology? ›

DJI: DJI is the global leader in manufacturing innovative drone and camera technology for commercial and recreational use. DJI was founded and run by people with a passion for remote-controlled helicopters and experts in flight-control technology and camera stabilization.

What are limitations of drone technology? ›

Drones Don't Fly Well in High Wind Conditions

While drones are agile and reliable, they can't deal well with high winds. Drones are lightweight and small; high winds can blow them off course and make it impossible for them to get consistent readings.

Can drones work in space? ›

While it may seem crazy, it is actually very possible for a drone to record earth from space, however it needs a little assistance which in this case comes in the form of a weather balloon.

How do drones communicate? ›

Civilian UAV communications systems typically operate on frequencies of 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz. UAV communications systems work by using one frequency to control the aerial vehicle from the ground via a remote pilot while the other frequency is used to beam data or relay First-Person View (FPV) video.

What are the benefits of drone technology in media? ›

Easy maneuverability – Drones can be easily maneuvered, and can thus provide multiple points and angles of view. Safety – Being above the ground and unmanned, drones are a safer option when the target area is a difficult and/or dangerous terrain or during an emergency such as earthquake or fire.

How are drones used for advertising? ›

The primary use case for drones in the advertising industry is drone light shows. Whether it's a company logo, brand messaging, or even a QR code – drone light shows can light up the sky with images up to hundreds of feet across.

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